Organic Potato Profile

Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is a major food crop grown more than hundred countries of the world. It is believed that potato was a native of Andes in South America and gradually spread throughout the world. The dry matter, edible energy and edible protein content of potato makes it nutritionally superior vegetable as well as staple food throughout the world. The constituents of potato per 100 gms are as follows.Potato

Source: CPRI, Simla, India

Global Statistics

  • During 2005, around 321.97 MT of potato is produced in approximately 18.65 million hectares land with an average productivity of about 17.26 tonnes per hectare across the world.
  • China, the Russian Federation, India, the USA, Ukraine, Poland, Germany, Belarus, the Netherlands, France, the UK, Canada, Turkey, and Romania are the major potato growing countries. However, the top five countries contribute for more than 50% of world's total production. China stands first with an average annual production of 70 MT followed by the Russian Federation (36 MT), India (25 MT), the USA (20 MT), and Ukraine (19.5 MT).
  • 2-3% of about 300 MT of the potato is traded internationally. The Netherlands, Germany, Belgium, Luxembourg, France, Italy, Canada, the USA, Egypt, Turkey, and Cyprus account for about 80% of the potato export trade. The Netherlands, the USA, and Canada are leading in the production and export of processed potato products.
  • India's contribution to the world potato trade is hardly about 0.3%. India exports around 3 lakh tonnes of potato to various countries in different forms. Potato is mainly exported in fresh form, seed potato, and processed potato. Nepal, Sri Lanka, the United Arab Emirates, and Mauritius are the major destinations for fresh potato. The major destinations for Indian seed potatoes are Nepal, Sri Lanka, and the United Arab Emirates.
  • Major potato producers are China (23%), Russia (11%), India (8%), Ukrain (6%), USA (6%)

Indian Position

  • During 2005-06, 25 MT of potato was produced in India.
  • Potato productivity is merely 16-19 tonnes/ha vis--vis that of European countries and the USA (that is 30-40 tonnes/ha).
  • Potato is cultivated under highly diversified agroclimatic conditions ranging from sea level to snowline. The following three types of crops are raised every year: (a) Kharif crop: From July-August to October-November (12%) (b) Winter crop: From October-November to February-March (80%) (c) Summer crop: From March-April to July-August (8%)
  • Potato is mainly a Rabi crop and has achieved a tremendous growth during last four to five decades. The annual compound growth rate of potato is higher than other major food crops in respect of are, production and productivity. It is grown in UP, Punjab, Haryana, West Bengal, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, and Gujarat.
  • Average acreage under potato varies between 12 and 15 lakh/ha depending on the weather condition during sowing period.
  • The major potato markets in West Bengal, are Hoogly, Burdwan, Midnapore (West), and Howrah. In UP the centres are Agra, Aligarh, Hathras, Kanpur, Meerut, Badauin, Firozabad, and Farukhabad. In other parts of the country, important places are Indore in MP, Jalandhar in Punjab, Deesa in Gujarat, and Hassan, Kolar in Karnataka.
  • Due to bumper crop, and lack of post harvest management, glut situations risen in the market for the surplus yield every year which ultimately results in decline in prices drastically.